Symbiosis: Gut Bacteria Manipulate Host Behaviour
. Current Biology 2017
, R746 - R747. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Summary Bacteria resident in the gut of Drosophila modify the fly’s innate chemosensory responses to nutritional stimuli. In effect, the gut microbiome compels the host to forage on food patches that favour particular assemblages of bacteria.
Host-specific associations affect the microbiome of Philornis downsi, an introduced parasite to the Galápagos Islands
. Mol Ecol 2017
The composition and diversity of bacteria forming the microbiome of parasitic organisms have implications for differential host pathogenicity and host-parasite co-evolutionary interactions. The microbiome of pathogens can therefore have consequences that are relevant for managing disease prevalence and impact on affected hosts. Here, we investigate the microbiome of an invasive parasitic fly Philornis downsi, recently introduced to the Galápagos Islands, where it poses extinction threat to Darwin's finches and other land birds. Larvae infest nests of Darwin's finches and consume blood and tissue of developing nestlings, and have severe mortality impacts. Using 16s rRNA sequencing data, we characterize the bacterial microbiota associated with P. downsi adults and larvae sourced from four finch host species, inhabiting two islands and representing two ecologically distinct groups. We show that larval and adult microbiomes are dominated by the phyla Proteobacteria and Firmicutes, which significantly differ between life stages in their distributions. Additionally, bacterial community structure significantly differed between larvae retrieved from strictly insectivorous warbler finches (Certhidea olivacea) and those parasitizing hosts with broader dietary preferences (ground and tree finches, Geospiza and Camarhynchus spp., respectively). Finally, we found no spatial effects on the larval microbiome, as larvae feeding on the same host (ground finches) harboured similar microbiomes across islands. Our results suggest that the microbiome of P. downsi changes during its development, according to dietary composition or nutritional needs, and is significantly affected by host-related factors during the larval stage. Unravelling the ecological significance of bacteria for this parasite will contribute to the development of novel, effective control strategies.
Transcriptomic responses of the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae and its symbiont Candidatus Erwinia dacicola to olive feeding
. Sci Rep 2017
The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the most destructive pest of olive orchards worldwide. The monophagous larva has the unique capability of feeding on olive mesocarp, coping with high levels of phenolic compounds and utilizing non-hydrolyzed proteins present, particularly in the unripe, green olives. On the molecular level, the interaction between B. oleae and olives has not been investigated as yet. Nevertheless, it has been associated with the gut obligate symbiotic bacterium Candidatus Erwinia dacicola. Here, we used a B.oleae microarray to analyze the gene expression of larvae during their development in artificial diet, unripe (green) and ripe (black) olives. The expression profiles of Ca. E. dacicola were analyzed in parallel, using the Illumina platform. Several genes were found overexpressed in the olive fly larvae when feeding in green olives. Among these, a number of genes encoding detoxification and digestive enzymes, indicating a potential association with the ability of B. oleae to cope with green olives. In addition, a number of biological processes seem to be activated in Ca. E. dacicola during the development of larvae in olives, with the most notable being the activation of amino-acid metabolism.